PG Syllabus MSc Semester-IV
PG Syllabus MSc Semester-IV

Dr. Hari Singh Gour Vishwavidyalaya

Department of Chemistry

M.Sc. IV Semester PURE CHEMISTRY

 

 

Course

Title

Credit (s)

 

1.

2.

3.

 

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

 

 

 

1.

2

3.

Compulsory

CHE-C-421

CHE-C-422

CHE-C-423

Elective (any two)

CHE-E-424

CHE-E-425

CHE-E-426

CHE-E-427

CHE-E-428

CHE-E-429

CHE-E-4210

Laboratory course

Compulsory

CHE-C-4211

CHE-C-4212

CHE-C-4213

 

Spectroscopy, Photochemistry, Solid state Chemistry

Bioinorganic, Bioorganic, Biophysical

Environmental Chemistry

 

Photo Inorganic chemistry

Organic Synthesis

Medicinal chemistry

Polymers

Chemistry of Supramolecules

Electro Chemistry

Advanced Analytical Chemistry

 

 

Laboratory Course in Inorganic Chemistry

Laboratory Course in Organic Chemistry

Laboratory Course in Physical Chemistry

 

4

3

2

 

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

 

 

1

1

1

 

Distribution of marks

Theory courses

Compulsory Papers (CHE-C-421-423)

Elective Papers (CHE-E-424to 429) (Any two)

Compulsory-Laboratory courses: CHE-C-4211, 4212 and 4213

End semester examination will be of 60 marks (2 experiments: 20x2 = 40, Viva=10, Sessional=10.

Practical examination duration will be of 6 hours.

Mid Semester 1 and 2 each of 20 Marks, end semester-60 marks


Compulsory paper- I CHE-C-421

Spectroscopy, Photochemistry and Solid State Chemistry

60 Hrs, Credits-04

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Paramagnetic Substances in Solutions

The contact and pseudo-contact shifts, factors affecting nuclear relaxation, some applications including biochemical systems and over view of  NMR of  metal nuclides with emphasis on Pt195 & Sn 119 NMR.

Moss Bauer Spectroscopy                                               

Basic principles, spectral parameters and spectrum display. Application of the technique to the studies of (1) bonding and  structure of Fe2+ and Fe3+ compounds including those of intermediate spin, (2) Sn2+ and Sn4+ compounds – nature of M-L bond, co-ordination  number, structure and (3) detection of oxidation states in equivalent MB atoms.

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

General introduction and definition, Chemical shift, spin spin interaction, shielding mechanism, mechanism of measurement, chemical shift values and correlation for protons bonded to carbon (aliphatic, olefinic aldehydic and aromatic) and other nuclei (alcohols, phenols, enols, carboxylic acids, amines, amides and mercapto), chemical exchange, effect of deuteration, complex spin – spin interaction between two, three, four and five nuclei ( first order spectra), virtual cpoupling. Stereochemistry, hindered rotation, Karplus curve-variation of coupling constant with dihedral angle. Simplification of complex spectra- nuclear magnetic double resonance, contact shift reagents, solvent effects. Fourier transform technique, nuclear overhauser effect (NOE). Resonance of other nuclei-F, P.

C-13 NMR spectroscopy

General considerations, chemical shift (aliphatic, olefinic, alkyne, aromatic, hetero aromatic and carbonyl carbon), coupling constants.

Two dimension NMR spectroscopy-COSY, NOESY, DEPT, INEPT, APT and INADEQUATE techniques

Photochemistry of Carbonyl Compounds:                                     

Intramolecular reactions of carbonyl compounds – saturated, cyclic and acyclic, b- g unsaturated and a, b - unsaturated compounds. Cyclohexadienones. Intermolecular cycloaddition reactions- dimerisation and oxetane formation

Photochemistry of Aromatic compounds                                      

Isomerisations, additions and substitutions.

Miscellaneous Photochemical Reactions:

Photo- Fries reactions of anillides. Photo-Fries rearrangement. Barion reaction. Single molecular oxygen reactions. Photochemical formation of Smog. Photodegradation of polymers. Photochemistry of vision.

Electronic Properties and Band Theory:

Metals, insulators and semiconductors, electronic structure of solids- band theory, band structure of metals, insulators and semiconductors. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, doping semiconductors, p-n junctions, super conductors.

Optical propertiesOptical reflectance, photo-conduction, photoelectric effects.

Magnetic Properties – Classification of materials: Quantum theory of Paramagnetics-cooperative phenomena-magnetic domains, hysteresius:

Behaviour of substances in a magnetic field, Effect of temperature on magnetic materials, calculation of magnetic moment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

COMPULSORY PAPER – II CHE-C-422 

Bio inorganic, Bioorganic and Bio Physical Chemistry                                                   45 Hrs., Credits-03

Bioinorganic Chemistry  

Transport and Storage of Dioxygen:-

Heme proteins and oxygen uptake, structure and function of Hemoglobin, Myoglobin, Hemocyanins and Hemerythrin, model synthetic complexes of Iron, cobalt and copper.

Electron Transfer in Biology:-

Structure and function of metalloproteins in electron transport process – cytochromes and Iron – sulpher proteins, synthetic models.

Bio-organic Chemistry:

Kinds of Reactions Catalysed by Enzymes:

Nucleophilic displacement on a phosphorus atom, multiple displacement reactions and the coupling of ATP cleavage to endergonic processes, Transfer of sulphate, addition and elimination reactions, enolic intermediates in isomerization reactios, b - cleavage and condensation, some isomerization and rearrangement reactions, Enzyme catalyzed carboxylation and decarboxylation.

Enzyme Models

Host – guest chemistry, chiral recognition and catalysis, molecular recognition, molecular asymmetry and prochirality. Biomimetic chemistry, crown ether, cryptates.Cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin- based enzyme models, calixarenes, ionophores, micelles, synthetic enzymes or synzymes

Bio-technological applications of enzymes

Large scale production and purification of enzymes, techniques and methods of immobilization of enzymes, effect of immobilization on enzyme activity, application of immobilized enzymes, use of enzymes in food and drink industry- brewing and cheese making, syrups from corn starch, enzymes as targets for drug design. Clinical uses of enzymes, enzyme therapy, enzymes and recombinant DNA technology.

Biophysical Chemistry

Thermodynamics of Biopolymer Solutions

Thermodynamics of biopolymer solutions, osmotics pressure, membrane equilibrium, muscular contraction and energy generation in mechanochemical system.

Cell Membrane and Transport of Ions

Structure and function of cell membrane, ion transport through celll membrane, irreversible thermodynamics treatment of membrane transport, Nerve conduction.

Biopolymers and their Molecular Weights

Evaluation of size, shape molecular weight and extent of hydration of biopolymers by various experimental techniques, Sedimentation equilibrium, hydrodynamic methods, diffusion, sedimentation velocity, viscosity, electrophoresis and rotational motions.

Diffraction Methods

Light scattering, low angle X-Ray scattering, X-Ray diffraction and photo correlation spectroscopy, ORD.

 


Compulsory Paper – III, CHE–C – 423

Environmental Chemistry

             30 Hrs. Credits-02

 

I. Industrial Pollution

Cement, sugar, distillery, paper and pulp, thermal power plant, nuclear power plant, metallurgy, polymers, drugs, radionuclide analysis, disposal of wastes and their management.

II. Environmental Toxicology

Chemical solutions to environmental problems, biodegradability, principles of decomposition, better industrial processes.

Bhopal gas tragedy, Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and Minamata disasters.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


ELECTIVE PAPER

CHE-E-424

Photo inorganic Chemistry

45 Hrs, Credits-03

I. Basis of Photochemistry

Absorption, excitation, photochemical laws, quantum yield, electronically excited states life times-measurements of the times. Flash photolysis, stopped flow techniques. Energy dissipation by radiative and non-radiative processes, absorption spectra, Franck-Condon principle, photochemical stages- primary and secondary processes.

II. Properties of Excited States

Structure, dipole moment, acid-base strengths, reactivity. Photochemical kinetics-calculation of rates of radiative processes. Bimolecular deactivation- quenching.

III. Excited State of Metal Complexes

Excited State of Metal Complexes: comparison with organic compounds, electronically excited states of metal complexes, charge-transfer spectra, charge transfer excitations, methods for obtaining charge-transfer spectra.

IV. Ligand Field Photochemistry

Photo substitution, photo oxidation and photo reduction, lability, and selectivity, zero vibrational levels of ground state and excited state, energy content of excited state, zero-zero spectroscopic energy, development of the equations for redox potentials of the excited states.

V. Redox reactions by Excited Metal Complexes

Energy transfer under conditions of weak interaction and strong interaction-exciplex formation; condition of the excited states to be useful as redox reactants, excited electron transfer, metal complexes as attractive candidates (2,2-bipyridine and 1,10-phenthroline complexes), illustration of reducing and oxidizing character of Ruthenium2+(bipyridal complexes), comprasion with Fe(bipy)3; role of spin orbital coupling-life time of these complexes, Application of redox processes of electronically excited states for catalytic purposes, transformation of low energy reactants into high energy products, chemical energy into light.

VI. Metal Complexes Sensitizers

Metal complex sensitizer, electrons relay, metal collide systems, and semiconductor supported metal or oxide systems, water photolysis, and nitrogen fixation and carbon dioxide reduction.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Elective Paper

CHE-E 425

       Organic Synthesis                 

           45 Hrs, Credits- 03

I. Organometallic Reagents: Principle, preparations, properties and applications of the following in organic synthesis with mechanistic details.

Group I and II metal organic compounds

Li, Mg, Zn and Ce compounds ; Transition metals : Cu, Fe, Rh and Ti compounds. Other elements Si and B.

II. Oxidation  : Introduction. Different oxidative processes. Hydrocarbons, Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Ketals, Amines and Hydrazines. Oxidations with ruthenium tetraoxide, Iodobenzene diacetate and thallium (III) nitrate.

III. Reduction : Introduction. Different reductive processes. Hydrocarbons, Carbonyl compounds Nitro, Nitroso, Azo, Oxime groups and Hydrogenolysis.

IV. Rearrangements                                                                                                                 

General mechanistic considerations- nature of migration, migratory aptitude, memory effects. A detailed study of the following rearrangements 

Pinacol-pinacolone, Wagner-Meerwein, Demjanov, Benzil-Benzilic acid, Favorskii, Arndt-Eistert synthesis, Neber, Beckmann, Hofman, Curtius, Schmidt, Baeyer-Villiger, Shapiro reaction.

V. Metallocenes, Nonbenzenoid Aromatics and Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds General considerations, synthesis and reactions of some representative compounds.

VI. Disconnection Approach                                                                                               

An introduction to synthons and synthetic equivalents, disconnection approach, functional group inter-conversions, one group C-X and two group C-X disconnections, chemoselectivity, reversal of polarity, cyclisation reactions, amine synthesis.

VII Two Group C-C Disconnection: Diels-Alder reaction, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, Micheal addition and Robinson annelation.

VIII. Ring Synthesis : Saturated heterocycles, synthesis of 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-membered rings, aromatic heterocycles in organic synthesis.

IX. Synthesis of Some Complex Molecules : Application of the above in the synthesis of following compounds:Camphor, Longifoline, Cortisone, Reserpine, Vitamin-D, Juvabione.

Books Suggested

1.                  Modern Synthetic Reactions, H. O. House, W. A. Benjamin.

2.                  Some Modern Methods of Organic Synthesis, W. Carruthers, Cambridge Univ. Press.

3.                  Advanced Organic Chemistry, Reactions Mechanisms and Structure, J. March, John Wiley.

4.                  Principles of Organic Synthesis, R. O. C. Norman and J. M. Coxon, Blackie Academic and Professional.

5.                  Advanced Organic Chemistry Part B, F. A. Carey and R. J. Sundberg, Plenum Press.

6.                  Rodd’s Chemistry of Carbon Compouns, Ed. S. Coffey, Elsevier.

7.                  Designing Organic Synthesis, S. Warren, Wiley.

8.                  Organic Synthesis- Concept, Methods and Starting Materials, J. Fuhrhop and G. Penzillin, Verlage VCH.

 


Elective Paper CHE-E-426

                                                         Medicinal Chemistry                         45 Hrs, Credits- 03

I. Drug Design                                                                                                                   

Development of new drugs, procedures followed in drug design, concepts of lead compound and lead modification, concepts of prodrugs and soft drugs, structure-activity relationship (SAR), factors affecting bioactivity, resonance, inductive effect, isosterism, bio-isosterism, spatial considerations. Theories of drug activity: occupancy theory, rate theory, induced fit theory. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR). History and development of QSAR. Concepts of drug receptors. Elementary treatment of drug receptor interactions. Physico-chemical parameters; lipophilicity, partition coefficient, electronic ionization constants, steric, Shelton and surface activity parameters and redox potentials. Free-Wilson analysis, Hansch analysis, relationships between Free-Wilson and Hansch analysis. LD-50, ED-50 (Mathematical derivations of equations excluded).

II. Pharmacokinetics:  Introduction to drug absorption, disposition, elimination using pharmacokinetics, important pharmacokinetic parameters in defining drug disposition and in therapeutics. Mention of uses of pharmacokinetics in drug development process.

III. Pharmacodynamics : Introduction, elementary treatment of enzyme stimulation, enzyme inhibition. Sulphonamides, membrane active drugs, drug metabolism, xenobiotics, biotransformation. Significance of drug metabolism in medicinal chemistry.

IV. Antineoplastic Agents : Introdudction, cancer chemotherapy, special problems, role of alkylating agents and antimetabolites in treatment of cancer. Mention of carcinolytic antibiotics and mitotic inhibitors.

Synthesis of mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, melphalan, uracil, mustards, and 6-mercaptopurine. Recent development in cancer chemotherapy. Hormone and natural products.

V. Cardiovascular Drugs   : Introduction, cardiovascular diseases, drug inhibitors of peripheral sympathetic function. Central intervention of cardiovascular output. Direct acting arteriolar dilators.

Synthesis of amyl nitrate, sorbitrate, diltiazem, quinidine, verapamil, methyldopa, atenolol, oxyprenolol.

VI. Local Antiinfective Drugs  : Introduction  and general mode of action, Synthesis of sulphonamides, furazolidone, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, dapsone, amino salicylic acid, isoniazid, ethionamide, ethambutal, fluconazole, econozole, Griseofulvin, chloroquin and primaquin.

VII. Psychoactive Drugs- The Chemotherapy of Mind                                                  

Introduction, neurotransmitters, CNS depressants, general anesthetics, mode of action of hypnotics, sedatives, anti-anxiety drugs, benzodiazepines, buspirone, neurochemistry of mental diseases. Antipsychotic drugs- the neuroleptics, antidepressants, butyrophenones, serendipity and drug development, stereochemical aspects of psychotropic drugs. Synthesis of diazepam, oxazepam, chlorazepam, alprazolam, phenytoin, ethosuximde, trimethadione, barbiturates, thiopental sodium, glutethimide.

VIII. Antibiotics                                                                                                                    

Cell wall biosynthesis, inhibitors, β-lactam rings, antibiotics inhibiting protein synthesis, Synthesis of penicillin-G, penicillin-V, ampicillin, amoxycillin, chloramphenicol, cephalosporin, tetracycline and streptomycin.

1.               Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry, A. Gringuage, Wiley-VCH.

2.               Wilson and Gisvold’s Text Book of organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Ed Robert F. Dorge.

3.               An Introduction to Drug Design, S. S. Pandeya and J. R. Dimmock, New Age International.

4.               Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Vol. 1 (Chapter-9 and Ch-14), Ed. M. E. Wolff, John Wiley.

5.               Goodman and Gilman’s Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Mc Graw-Hill.

6.               The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action, R. B. Silverman, Academic Press.

7.               Strategies for Organic Drug Synthesis and Design, D. Lednicer, John Wiley.

 

MSc Semester IV

CHE-E-427

Polymers

45 Hrs, Credits-03

I     Basics                                                                                                          

Importance of polymers. Basic concepts: Monomers, repeat units, degree of polymerization. Linear, branched and network polymers. Classification of polymers. Polymerization: condensation, addition, radical chain-ionic and co-ordination and co-polymerization. Polymerization conditions and polymer reactions. Polymerization in homogenous and heterogeneous systems.

II  Polymer Characterization                                                                                         

Polydispersion-average molecular weight concept. Number, weight and viscosity average molecular weights. Polydispersity and molecular weight distributions. The practical significance of molecular weight. Measurement of molecular weights. End-group, viscosity, light scattering. Osmotic and ultracentrifugation methods. Analysis and testing of polymers. Chemical analysis of polymers, spectroscopic methods, X-ray diffraction study. Microscopy. Thermal analysis and physical testing-tensile strength. Fatigue, impact. Tear resistance. Hardness and abrasion resistance.

III Structure and Properties                                                                                          

Morphology and order in crystalline polymers-configurations of polymer chains. Crystal structures of polymers. Morphology of crystalline polymers, strain-induced morphology, crystallization and melting. Polymer structure and physical properties-crystalline melting point Tm-melting points of homogenous series, effect of chain flexibility and other steric factors, entropy and heat of fusion. The glass transition temperature Tg, Relationship between Tm and Tg, effect of molecular weight, diluents, chemical structure, chain topology, branching and cross linking. Property requirements and polymer utilization.

IV          Polymer Processing                                                                                         

Plastics, elastomers and fibers. Compounding. Processing techniques: Calendaring, die casting, rotational casting, film casting, injection moulding, blow moulding, extrusion moulding, thermoforming, foaming, reinforcing and fibre spinning.

V    Properties of Commercial Polymers

Polythene, polyvinyl chloride, polyamides, polyesters, phenolic resins, epoxy resins and silicone polymers. Functional polymers-Fire retarding polymers and electrically conducting polymers. Biomedical polymers-contact lens, dental polymers, artificial heart, kidney, skin and blood cells.

Books Suggested

1.         Textbook of Polymer Sciences, F. W. Billmeyer Jr, Wiley.

2.          Polymer Sciences, V. R. Gwariker, N. V. Vishwanathan and J. Sreedhar, Willey- Eastern.

3.         Functional Monomers and Polymers, K. Takemoto, Y. Inaki and R. M. Ottanbrite.

4.         Contemperary Polymer Chemistry, H. R. Alcock and F. W. Lambe, Prentice Hall.

5.         Physics and Chemistry of Polymers, J. M. G. Cowie, Blackie Academic and Professional.

 

 

 

 

 


Elective Paper –CHE-E-428

Physical Chemistry of Supramolecules

60 hours, Credits-03

 

1.      Nanoparticles and its Chemistry

Nanoparticles, Methods of synthesis of nanoparticles, different reducing agents and stabilizing agents, reactivities and catalytic activities of nanoparticles. Characterization of nanoparticles. Applications of nanoparticles.

2,         Soft and Hard Template Chemistry

            Different templates and their importance, surfactants, type of surfactants,

            Micelle formation, vesicle formation, Sol – Gel method, Top down and

            Bottom up approachs in nanomaterials.Applications of soft and hard   templates.

3.         Nanoporous Materials

            Micro, Meso and Macro porous materials, methods of synthesis, different

additions in nanoporous materials. Surface area of porous materials and its determination. Thermogravimetric studies of nanoporous materials. Applications of porous materials in drug delivery, molecular catalysis, biosensor technology and Bio-filtration.

4,         Quantum dots and its Chemistry

Quantum dots, mechanism on the basis of band gap, excitons, quantum confinement effect, Bohr's radius in quantum dots, Different applications.

 

 

  

 


 Elective Paper CHE-E-429                                                                             Electrochemistry

60 Hours, Credits-03

Electrodeposition:

Factors affecting elctrodeposition of metals, Simultaneous discharge of cations, depolarization of metal deposition, and separation of metals by electrolysis. Electrochemical passivity, Passivity and current density, chemical passivity, theories of passivity, Mechanical passivity, Electroplating.

Corrosion:

The corrosion of metals, hydrogen evalution type and differential oxygenation type-corrosion.  Corrosion inhibition. Electrochemical theory of Corrosion.

Bioelctrochemistry- Bioelectrodics:      

Useful preliminaries biostructures (amino acids, proteins, DNA etc.) membrane potentials and theories of membrane potentials. Enzyme as electrodes, electrochemical enzyme catalyzed oxidation of Styrene. William’s electrochemical model for metabolism. Electrochemical aspects of some bio-processes. Electrochemical  Biosensors.

Selected Aspects of Organic Electrochemistry:

General Introduction, determination of organo-electrochemical reactions: anodic oxidation of β-Cynoethane, ethers.The manufacture of nylon.

Designer of Electrodes:

Introduction,formation of monolayers of organic molecules on electrodes.   Different electrodes of carbon as electrode material: Glassy corban electrode,  carbon fibre electrode, carbon paste electrode and carbon nano-tube paste based   electrode and their applications.

Newer Polarographic techniques: General treatment and applications of the following techniques:

(a)    Oscilographic polarography

(b)   AC polarography

(c)    Pulse polarography, NPP and DPP

(d)   Anodic stripping voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry

(e)    Chronopotentiometry

(f)    Spectroelctrochemistry                                                                 

Environmentally oriented electrochemistry:

The environmental situation, the electrochemical advantages. The solar-hydrogen solution.   The CO2 fixing, Photo-electrochemical reduction of CO2.

Electrochemical removal of wastes: (i). Waste water (ii). Sulphur dioxide (iii). Removal of metals

(iv) Destruction of nitrates.

Electrochemical treatment of low level nuclear wastes. Bactericidal effects.

 


 

Elective Paper

CHE – E  4210  :  Advanced Analytical Chemistry

                                     

Basic theory and instrumentation Functional Elements of a Measuring System, Measuring Instruments, Control Instruments, Calibration Instruments, Testing Instruments, Analytical Instrument, Analog Instrument, Digital Instrument, Transducer or sensors in Instruments. Some of the important sensors along with their properties for Laboratory techniques and application  : thermal pressure, ion and gas sensing probes, micro-electrodes, optical spectrophotometers, ICP in AAS / AES. Hyphenated  techniques.

Thermo analytical methods, thermogravimetric analysis, Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA): mass ; differential thermal analysis (DTA): temperature difference and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC): heat difference ; Thermomechanical analysis (TMA): dimension ; Dilatometry (DIL): volume ; Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) : mechanical stiffness & damping ; Dielectric thermal analysis (DEA): dielectric permittivity & loss factor ; Evolved gas analysis (EGA) : gaseous decomposition products ; Thermo-optical analysis(TOA) : optical properties

Electro chemical methods, spctro electrochemistry. Modification of the electrodes for the analytical applications and development of biosensors for the study of mechanism of drug action and bio electrodes.

Chromatographic methods, Classification : Technique and Mechanism; paper and thin layer chromatography adsorption, liquid liquid partition, ion exchange, HPTLC, DCC, gel permeation, and gel electrophoresis and gas chromatography, HPLC.Columns and detectors in GC-HPLC - Hyphenated techniques

Radio chemical methods, traces in chemical analysis, isotopic exchange, isotope dilution analysis. NAA,

Optical microscopy, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope.  Atomic force microscopy, electron and neutron scattering, osmometry,  tensiometry, ultrasonic absorption study.


M.Sc. Semester IV Semester

Laboratory Course

                                      (Compulsory to all)                          01 credit

Inorganic Practical (Paper code-CHE-C-4211)

I.                  Spectroscopic determinations

(a)   Mn/Cr/V in steel sample.

(b)  Ni/Mo/W/V/U by extractive spectrophotometric method.

(c)   Fluoride/nitrite/phosphate.

(d)  Iron-phenanthroline complex: Job’s method.

(e)   Zirconium-Alizarin Red-S complexes: Mole-ratio method.

(f)    Copper-Ethylene diamine complexes: Slope-ratio method.

II.               Flame photometric determinations

(a)     Na and K when present together.

(b)    Li/Cd/Ba/Sc.

(c)   Cd and Mg in tap water.

III.           Nephelometric determination.

(a)  Sulphate

(b)  Phosphate

(c)  Silver

IV.           Chromatographic separation

(a)  Cd and Zn

(b) Zn and Mg

(c)  Thin-layer chromatographic-separation of Ni, Mn, Co and Zn. Determination of Rf values.

(d) Separation and identification of the Sugars present in the given mixture of glucose, fructose and sucrose by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.


M.Sc. Semester IV Semester

CHE-C-4212 Laboratory Course in Organic Chemistry

01 credit

Multi-step Synthesis of Organic Compounds

The exercises should illustrate the use of organic reagents and may involve purification of the products by chromatographic techniques.

Benzophenone→ Benzpinacol →Benzpinacolone

Beckmann rearrangement: Benzanilide from benzene

Benzene→ Benzophenone→Benzophenone oxime→Benzanilide

Benzilic acid rearrangement: Benzilic acid from benzoin

Benzoin→ Benzil→ Benzilic acid

Synthesis of heterocyclic compounds

Skraup synthesis: Preparation of quinoline from aniline. Fisher-Indole synthesis: Preparation of 2-phenylindole from phenylhydrazine.

Enzymatic synthesis

Enzymatic reduction: Reduction of ethyl acetoacetate using Bakers yeast to yield enantiomeric excess of S (+) ethyl-3-hydroxybutanoate and determine its optical purity. Biosynthesis of ethanol from sucrose.

Synthesis using microwaves

Alkylation of diethyl malonate with benzyl chloride.

Synthesis using phase transfer catalyst.

Alkylation of diethyl malonate or ethyl acetoacetate with an alkyl halide.

Paper Chromatography

Sepration and identification of the sugars present in the given mixture of glucose, fructose and sucrose by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.

Spectroscopy

Identification of organic compounds by the analysis of their spectral data (UV, IR, PMR, CMR & MS).


M.Sc. Semester IV Semester

CHE-C-4213 Laboratory Course in Physical Chemistry

01 credit

Polarography:

1.         Determine the HWP of metal ions.

2.         Estimation of Pb2+ and Cd2+/ Zn2+  and Ni2+ ions in mixture of Pb2+  and Cd2+ /Zn2+ and Ni2+  by polarography.

3.         Quantitative determination of electroactive species by Polarography

4.         Determination of dissolved oxygen in aqueous solution of organic solvent.

5.         Determination of the amount of Pb2+  by standard K2Cr2O7 solution amperometrically.

Basic Electronics :

1.         Measurement of resistance with multimeter and testing of components by multimeter.

2.         Measurement of resistance of a given ammeter

3.         Voltage measurement with CRO

4.         Familiarizing CRO

5.         Use of Wheatstone bridge for accurate measurement of resistance.

6.         Capacitor as a charge storage device.

7.         To study the behavior of parallel charged capacitor in series charged capicitors placed in parallel.

8.         The Use of LCR bridge

9.         Response characteristics of RC network.

10.     Response characteristics of LR network.

11.     Response characteristics of LCRC network.

12.     Verification of Kirchoff’s law.

13.     To study the Lissajou’s figure.

14.     Measurement of  emf with thermocouple.

15.     To plot the characteristic curve of a diode.

16.     Clipping and Clamping circuits.

17.     Capacitor filter for full wave rectifier.

18.     Half wave and full wave rectifier.

19.     Voltage boubler, Zener stabilizer bipolar power supply.

20.     Transistor characteristics.

21.     Differential amplifier.

22.     Transistor amplifier.

23.     Introduction of an operational amplifier as a voltage follower.

24.     Op-AMP as non inverting and inverting amplifier.

25.     Simple integration differentiation with Op-AMP 741.

26.     Op-AMP comparator.

27.     Designing and fabrication of a printed circuit board.

28.     Setting up of a thermostat : Constant temperature bath.

29.     Four probe method for sensitivity measurement.