Spectroscopy, Photochemistry, Solid state Chemistry
Bioinorganic, Bioorganic, Biophysical
Photo Inorganic chemistry
Chemistry of Supramolecules
Advanced Analytical Chemistry
Laboratory Course in Inorganic Chemistry
Laboratory Course in Organic Chemistry
Laboratory Course in Physical Chemistry
Distribution of marks
Compulsory Papers (CHE-C-421-423)
Elective Papers (CHE-E-424to 429) (Any two)
Compulsory-Laboratory courses: CHE-C-4211, 4212 and 4213
End semester examination will be of 60 marks (2 experiments: 20x2 = 40, Viva=10, Sessional=10.
Practical examination duration will be of 6 hours.
Mid Semester 1 and 2 each of 20 Marks, end semester-60 marks
Compulsory paper- I CHE-C-421
Spectroscopy, Photochemistry and Solid State Chemistry
60 Hrs, Credits-04
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of Paramagnetic Substances in Solutions
The contact and pseudo-contact shifts, factors affecting nuclear relaxation, some applications including biochemical systems and over view ofNMR ofmetal nuclides with emphasis on Pt195 & Sn 119 NMR.
Moss Bauer Spectroscopy
Basic principles, spectral parameters and spectrum display. Application of the technique to the studies of (1) bonding andstructure of Fe2+ and Fe3+ compounds including those of intermediate spin, (2) Sn2+ and Sn4+ compounds – nature of M-L bond, co-ordinationnumber, structure and (3) detection of oxidation states in equivalent MB atoms.
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
General introduction and definition, Chemical shift, spin spin interaction, shielding mechanism, mechanism of measurement, chemical shift values and correlation for protons bonded to carbon (aliphatic, olefinic aldehydic and aromatic) and other nuclei (alcohols, phenols, enols, carboxylic acids, amines, amides and mercapto), chemical exchange, effect of deuteration, complex spin – spin interaction between two, three, four and five nuclei ( first order spectra), virtual cpoupling. Stereochemistry, hindered rotation, Karplus curve-variation of coupling constant with dihedral angle. Simplification of complex spectra- nuclear magnetic double resonance, contact shift reagents, solvent effects. Fourier transform technique, nuclear overhauser effect (NOE). Resonance of other nuclei-F, P.
C-13 NMR spectroscopy
General considerations, chemical shift (aliphatic, olefinic, alkyne, aromatic, hetero aromatic and carbonyl carbon), coupling constants.
Two dimension NMR spectroscopy-COSY, NOESY, DEPT, INEPT, APT and INADEQUATE techniques
Photochemistry of Carbonyl Compounds:
Intramolecular reactions of carbonyl compounds – saturated, cyclic and acyclic, b- g unsaturated and a, b - unsaturated compounds. Cyclohexadienones. Intermolecular cycloaddition reactions- dimerisation and oxetane formation
Photochemistry of Aromatic compounds
Isomerisations, additions and substitutions.
Miscellaneous Photochemical Reactions:
Photo- Fries reactions of anillides. Photo-Fries rearrangement. Barion reaction. Single molecular oxygen reactions. Photochemical formation of Smog. Photodegradation of polymers. Photochemistry of vision.
Electronic Properties and Band Theory:
Metals, insulators and semiconductors, electronic structure of solids- band theory, band structure of metals, insulators and semiconductors. Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, doping semiconductors, p-n junctions, super conductors.
Magnetic Properties – Classification of materials: Quantum theory of Paramagnetics-cooperative phenomena-magnetic domains, hysteresius:
Behaviour of substances in a magnetic field, Effect of temperature on magnetic materials, calculation of magnetic moment.
COMPULSORY PAPER – II CHE-C-422
Bio inorganic, Bioorganic and Bio Physical Chemistry45 Hrs., Credits-03
Transport and Storage of Dioxygen:-
Heme proteins and oxygen uptake, structure and function of Hemoglobin, Myoglobin, Hemocyanins and Hemerythrin, model synthetic complexes of Iron, cobalt and copper.
Electron Transfer in Biology:-
Structure and function of metalloproteins in electron transport process – cytochromes and Iron – sulpher proteins, synthetic models.
Kinds of Reactions Catalysed by Enzymes:
Nucleophilic displacement on a phosphorus atom, multiple displacement reactions and the coupling of ATP cleavage to endergonic processes, Transfer of sulphate, addition and elimination reactions, enolic intermediates in isomerization reactios, b - cleavage and condensation, some isomerization and rearrangement reactions, Enzyme catalyzed carboxylation and decarboxylation.
Host – guest chemistry, chiral recognition and catalysis, molecular recognition, molecular asymmetry and prochirality. Biomimetic chemistry, crown ether, cryptates.Cyclodextrins, cyclodextrin- based enzyme models, calixarenes, ionophores, micelles, synthetic enzymes or synzymes
Bio-technological applications of enzymes
Large scale production and purification of enzymes, techniques and methods of immobilization of enzymes, effect of immobilization on enzyme activity, application of immobilized enzymes, use of enzymes in food and drink industry- brewing and cheese making, syrups from corn starch, enzymes as targets for drug design. Clinical uses of enzymes, enzyme therapy, enzymes and recombinant DNA technology.
Thermodynamics of Biopolymer Solutions
Thermodynamics of biopolymer solutions, osmotics pressure, membrane equilibrium, muscular contraction and energy generation in mechanochemical system.
Cell Membrane and Transport of Ions
Structure and function of cell membrane, ion transport through celll membrane, irreversible thermodynamics treatment of membrane transport, Nerve conduction.
Biopolymers and their Molecular Weights
Evaluation of size, shape molecular weight and extent of hydration of biopolymers by various experimental techniques, Sedimentation equilibrium, hydrodynamic methods, diffusion, sedimentation velocity, viscosity, electrophoresis and rotational motions.
Cement, sugar, distillery, paper and pulp, thermal power plant, nuclear power plant, metallurgy, polymers, drugs, radionuclide analysis, disposal of wastes and their management.
II. Environmental Toxicology
Chemical solutions to environmental problems, biodegradability, principles of decomposition, better industrial processes.
Bhopal gas tragedy, Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and Minamata disasters.
Photo inorganic Chemistry
45 Hrs, Credits-03
I. Basis of Photochemistry
Absorption, excitation, photochemical laws, quantum yield, electronically excited states life times-measurements of the times. Flash photolysis, stopped flow techniques. Energy dissipation by radiative and non-radiative processes, absorption spectra, Franck-Condon principle, photochemical stages- primary and secondary processes.
II. Properties of Excited States
Structure, dipole moment, acid-base strengths, reactivity. Photochemical kinetics-calculation of rates of radiative processes. Bimolecular deactivation- quenching.
III. Excited State of Metal Complexes
Excited State of Metal Complexes: comparison with organic compounds, electronically excited states of metal complexes, charge-transfer spectra, charge transfer excitations, methods for obtaining charge-transfer spectra.
IV. Ligand Field Photochemistry
Photo substitution, photo oxidation and photo reduction, lability, and selectivity, zero vibrational levels of ground state and excited state, energy content of excited state, zero-zero spectroscopic energy, development of the equations for redox potentials of the excited states.
V. Redox reactions by Excited Metal Complexes
Energy transfer under conditions of weak interaction and strong interaction-exciplex formation; condition of the excited states to be useful as redox reactants, excited electron transfer, metal complexes as attractive candidates (2,2’-bipyridine and 1,10-phenthroline complexes), illustration of reducing and oxidizing character of Ruthenium2+(bipyridal complexes), comprasion with Fe(bipy)3; role of spin orbital coupling-life time of these complexes, Application of redox processes of electronically excited states for catalytic purposes, transformation of low energy reactants into high energy products, chemical energy into light.
VI. Metal Complexes Sensitizers
Metal complex sensitizer, electrons relay, metal collide systems, and semiconductor supported metal or oxide systems, water photolysis, and nitrogen fixation and carbon dioxide reduction.
45 Hrs, Credits- 03
I. Organometallic Reagents: Principle, preparations, properties and applications of the following in organic synthesis with mechanistic details.
Group I and II metal organic compounds
Li, Mg, Zn and Ce compounds ; Transition metals : Cu, Fe, Rh and Ti compounds. Other elements Si and B.
II. Oxidation: Introduction. Different oxidative processes. Hydrocarbons, Alcohols, Aldehydes, Ketones, Ketals, Amines and Hydrazines. Oxidations with ruthenium tetraoxide, Iodobenzene diacetate and thallium (III) nitrate.
III. Reduction : Introduction. Different reductive processes. Hydrocarbons, Carbonyl compounds Nitro, Nitroso, Azo, Oxime groups and Hydrogenolysis.
General mechanistic considerations- nature of migration, migratory aptitude, memory effects. A detailed study of the following rearrangements
V. Metallocenes, Nonbenzenoid Aromatics and Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds General considerations, synthesis and reactions of some representative compounds.
VI. Disconnection Approach
An introduction to synthons and synthetic equivalents, disconnection approach, functional group inter-conversions, one group C-X and two group C-X disconnections, chemoselectivity, reversal of polarity, cyclisation reactions, amine synthesis.
VII Two Group C-C Disconnection: Diels-Alder reaction, α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, Micheal addition and Robinson annelation.
VIII. Ring Synthesis : Saturated heterocycles, synthesis of 3-, 4-, 5- and 6-membered rings, aromatic heterocycles in organic synthesis.
IX. Synthesis of Some Complex Molecules : Application of the above in the synthesis of following compounds:Camphor, Longifoline, Cortisone, Reserpine, Vitamin-D, Juvabione.
1.Modern Synthetic Reactions, H. O. House, W. A. Benjamin.
2.Some Modern Methods of Organic Synthesis, W. Carruthers, Cambridge Univ. Press.
3.Advanced Organic Chemistry, Reactions Mechanisms and Structure, J. March, John Wiley.
4.Principles of Organic Synthesis, R. O. C. Norman and J. M. Coxon, Blackie Academic and Professional.
5.Advanced Organic Chemistry Part B, F. A. Carey and R. J. Sundberg, Plenum Press.
6.Rodd’s Chemistry of Carbon Compouns, Ed. S. Coffey, Elsevier.
7.Designing Organic Synthesis, S. Warren, Wiley.
8.Organic Synthesis- Concept, Methods and Starting Materials, J. Fuhrhop and G. Penzillin, Verlage VCH.
Elective Paper CHE-E-426
Medicinal Chemistry45 Hrs, Credits- 03
I. Drug Design
Development of new drugs, procedures followed in drug design, concepts of lead compound and lead modification, concepts of prodrugs and soft drugs, structure-activity relationship (SAR), factors affecting bioactivity, resonance, inductive effect, isosterism, bio-isosterism, spatial considerations. Theories of drug activity: occupancy theory, rate theory, induced fit theory. Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR). History and development of QSAR. Concepts of drug receptors. Elementary treatment of drug receptor interactions. Physico-chemical parameters; lipophilicity, partition coefficient, electronic ionization constants, steric, Shelton and surface activity parameters and redox potentials. Free-Wilson analysis, Hansch analysis, relationships between Free-Wilson and Hansch analysis. LD-50, ED-50 (Mathematical derivations of equations excluded).
II. Pharmacokinetics:Introduction to drug absorption, disposition, elimination using pharmacokinetics, important pharmacokinetic parameters in defining drug disposition and in therapeutics. Mention of uses of pharmacokinetics in drug development process.
III. Pharmacodynamics : Introduction, elementary treatment of enzyme stimulation, enzyme inhibition. Sulphonamides, membrane active drugs, drug metabolism, xenobiotics, biotransformation. Significance of drug metabolism in medicinal chemistry.
IV. Antineoplastic Agents : Introdudction, cancer chemotherapy, special problems, role of alkylating agents and antimetabolites in treatment of cancer. Mention of carcinolytic antibiotics and mitotic inhibitors.
Synthesis of mechlorethamine, cyclophosphamide, melphalan, uracil, mustards, and 6-mercaptopurine. Recent development in cancer chemotherapy. Hormone and natural products.
V. Cardiovascular Drugs: Introduction, cardiovascular diseases, drug inhibitors of peripheral sympathetic function. Central intervention of cardiovascular output. Direct acting arteriolar dilators.
VI. Local Antiinfective Drugs : Introductionand general mode of action, Synthesis of sulphonamides, furazolidone, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, dapsone, amino salicylic acid, isoniazid, ethionamide, ethambutal, fluconazole, econozole, Griseofulvin, chloroquin and primaquin.
VII. Psychoactive Drugs- The Chemotherapy of Mind
Introduction, neurotransmitters, CNS depressants, general anesthetics, mode of action of hypnotics, sedatives, anti-anxiety drugs, benzodiazepines, buspirone, neurochemistry of mental diseases. Antipsychotic drugs- the neuroleptics, antidepressants, butyrophenones, serendipity and drug development, stereochemical aspects of psychotropic drugs. Synthesis of diazepam, oxazepam, chlorazepam, alprazolam, phenytoin, ethosuximde, trimethadione, barbiturates, thiopental sodium, glutethimide.
Cell wall biosynthesis, inhibitors, β-lactam rings, antibiotics inhibiting protein synthesis, Synthesis of penicillin-G, penicillin-V, ampicillin, amoxycillin, chloramphenicol, cephalosporin, tetracycline and streptomycin.
1.Introduction to Medicinal Chemistry, A. Gringuage, Wiley-VCH.
2.Wilson and Gisvold’s Text Book of organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Ed Robert F. Dorge.
3.An Introduction to Drug Design, S. S. Pandeya and J. R. Dimmock, New Age International.
4.Burger’s Medicinal Chemistry and Drug Discovery, Vol. 1 (Chapter-9 and Ch-14), Ed. M. E. Wolff, John Wiley.
5.Goodman and Gilman’s Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Mc Graw-Hill.
6.The Organic Chemistry of Drug Design and Drug Action, R. B. Silverman, Academic Press.
7.Strategies for Organic Drug Synthesis and Design, D. Lednicer, John Wiley.
MSc Semester IV
45 Hrs, Credits-03
Importance of polymers. Basic concepts: Monomers, repeat units, degree of polymerization. Linear, branched and network polymers. Classification of polymers. Polymerization: condensation, addition, radical chain-ionic and co-ordination and co-polymerization. Polymerization conditions and polymer reactions. Polymerization in homogenous and heterogeneous systems.
Polydispersion-average molecular weight concept. Number, weight and viscosity average molecular weights. Polydispersity and molecular weight distributions. The practical significance of molecular weight. Measurement of molecular weights. End-group, viscosity, light scattering. Osmotic and ultracentrifugation methods. Analysis and testing of polymers. Chemical analysis of polymers, spectroscopic methods, X-ray diffraction study. Microscopy. Thermal analysis and physical testing-tensile strength. Fatigue, impact. Tear resistance. Hardness and abrasion resistance.
IIIStructure and Properties
Morphology and order in crystalline polymers-configurations of polymer chains. Crystal structures of polymers. Morphology of crystalline polymers, strain-induced morphology, crystallization and melting. Polymer structure and physical properties-crystalline melting point Tm-melting points of homogenous series, effect of chain flexibility and other steric factors, entropy and heat of fusion. The glass transition temperature Tg, Relationship between Tm and Tg, effect of molecular weight, diluents, chemical structure, chain topology, branching and cross linking. Property requirements and polymer utilization.
Plastics, elastomers and fibers. Compounding. Processing techniques: Calendaring, die casting, rotational casting, film casting, injection moulding, blow moulding, extrusion moulding, thermoforming, foaming, reinforcing and fibre spinning.
1.Textbook of Polymer Sciences, F. W. Billmeyer Jr, Wiley.
2.Polymer Sciences, V. R. Gwariker, N. V. Vishwanathan and J. Sreedhar, Willey- Eastern.
3.Functional Monomers and Polymers, K. Takemoto, Y. Inaki and R. M. Ottanbrite.
4.Contemperary Polymer Chemistry, H. R. Alcock and F. W. Lambe, Prentice Hall.
5.Physics and Chemistry of Polymers, J. M. G. Cowie, Blackie Academic and Professional.
Elective Paper –CHE-E-428
Physical Chemistry of Supramolecules
60 hours, Credits-03
1.Nanoparticles and its Chemistry
Nanoparticles, Methods of synthesis of nanoparticles, different reducing agents and stabilizing agents, reactivities and catalytic activities of nanoparticles. Characterization of nanoparticles. Applications of nanoparticles.
2,Soft and Hard Template Chemistry
Different templates and their importance, surfactants, type of surfactants,
Micelle formation, vesicle formation, Sol – Gel method, Top down and
Bottom up approachs in nanomaterials.Applications of soft and hardtemplates.
Micro, Meso and Macro porous materials, methods of synthesis, different
additions in nanoporous materials. Surface area of porous materials and its determination. Thermogravimetric studies of nanoporous materials. Applications of porous materials in drug delivery, molecular catalysis, biosensor technology and Bio-filtration.
4,Quantum dots and its Chemistry
Quantum dots, mechanism on the basis of band gap, excitons, quantum confinement effect, Bohr's radius in quantum dots, Different applications.
Elective Paper CHE-E-429 Electrochemistry
60 Hours, Credits-03
Factors affecting elctrodeposition of metals, Simultaneous discharge of cations, depolarization of metal deposition, and separation of metals by electrolysis. Electrochemical passivity, Passivity and current density, chemical passivity, theories of passivity, Mechanical passivity, Electroplating.
The corrosion of metals, hydrogen evalution type and differential oxygenation type-corrosion.Corrosion inhibition. Electrochemical theory of Corrosion.
Useful preliminaries biostructures (amino acids, proteins, DNA etc.) membrane potentials and theories of membrane potentials. Enzyme as electrodes, electrochemical enzyme catalyzed oxidation of Styrene. William’s electrochemical model for metabolism. Electrochemical aspects of some bio-processes. ElectrochemicalBiosensors.
Selected Aspects of Organic Electrochemistry:
General Introduction, determination of organo-electrochemical reactions: anodic oxidation of β-Cynoethane, ethers.The manufacture of nylon.
Designer of Electrodes:
Introduction,formation of monolayers of organic molecules on electrodes.Different electrodes of carbon as electrode material: Glassy corban electrode,carbon fibre electrode, carbon paste electrode and carbon nano-tube paste based electrode and their applications.
Newer Polarographic techniques: General treatment and applications of the following techniques:
(c)Pulse polarography, NPP and DPP
(d)Anodic stripping voltammetry and cyclic voltammetry
Environmentally oriented electrochemistry:
The environmental situation, the electrochemical advantages. The solar-hydrogen solution. The CO2 fixing, Photo-electrochemical reduction of CO2.
Electrochemical removal of wastes: (i). Waste water (ii). Sulphur dioxide (iii). Removal of metals
(iv) Destruction of nitrates.
Electrochemical treatment of low level nuclear wastes. Bactericidal effects.
CHE – E4210:Advanced Analytical Chemistry
Basic theory and instrumentationFunctional Elements of a Measuring System,Measuring Instruments, Control Instruments, Calibration Instruments, Testing Instruments, Analytical Instrument, Analog Instrument, Digital Instrument, Transducer or sensors in Instruments. Some of the important sensors along with their properties for Laboratory techniques and application: thermal pressure, ion and gas sensing probes, micro-electrodes, optical spectrophotometers, ICP in AAS / AES. Hyphenatedtechniques.
Electro chemical methods, spctro electrochemistry. Modification of the electrodes for the analytical applications and development of biosensors for the study of mechanism of drug action and bio electrodes.
Chromatographic methods, Classification : Technique and Mechanism; paper and thin layer chromatography adsorption, liquid liquid partition, ion exchange, HPTLC, DCC, gel permeation, and gel electrophoresis and gas chromatography, HPLC.Columns and detectors in GC-HPLC - Hyphenated techniques
Radio chemical methods, traces in chemical analysis, isotopic exchange, isotope dilution analysis. NAA,
Optical microscopy, transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope.Atomic force microscopy, electron and neutron scattering, osmometry,tensiometry, ultrasonic absorption study.
M.Sc. Semester IV Semester
(Compulsory to all)01 credit
Inorganic Practical (Paper code-CHE-C-4211)
(a)Mn/Cr/V in steel sample.
(b)Ni/Mo/W/V/U by extractive spectrophotometric method.
Benzilic acid rearrangement: Benzilic acid from benzoin
Benzoin→ Benzil→ Benzilic acid
Synthesis of heterocyclic compounds
Skraup synthesis: Preparation of quinoline from aniline. Fisher-Indole synthesis: Preparation of 2-phenylindole from phenylhydrazine.
Enzymatic reduction: Reduction of ethyl acetoacetate using Bakers yeast to yield enantiomeric excess of S (+) ethyl-3-hydroxybutanoate and determine its optical purity. Biosynthesis of ethanol from sucrose.
Synthesis using microwaves
Alkylation of diethyl malonate with benzyl chloride.
Synthesis using phase transfer catalyst.
Alkylation of diethyl malonate or ethyl acetoacetate with an alkyl halide.
Sepration and identification of the sugars present in the given mixture of glucose, fructose and sucrose by paper chromatography and determination of Rf values.
Identification of organic compounds by the analysis of their spectral data (UV, IR, PMR, CMR & MS).
M.Sc. Semester IV Semester
CHE-C-4213 Laboratory Course in Physical Chemistry
1.Determine the HWP of metal ions.
2.Estimation of Pb2+ and Cd2+/ Zn2+and Ni2+ ions in mixture of Pb2+and Cd2+ /Zn2+ and Ni2+by polarography.
3.Quantitative determination of electroactive species by Polarography
4.Determination of dissolved oxygen in aqueous solution of organic solvent.
5.Determination of the amount of Pb2+by standard K2Cr2O7 solution amperometrically.
Basic Electronics :
1.Measurement of resistance with multimeter and testing of components by multimeter.
2.Measurement of resistance of a given ammeter
3.Voltage measurement with CRO
5.Use of Wheatstone bridge for accurate measurement of resistance.
6.Capacitor as a charge storage device.
7.To study the behavior of parallel charged capacitor in series charged capicitors placed in parallel.
8.The Use of LCR bridge
9.Response characteristics of RC network.
10.Response characteristics of LR network.
11.Response characteristics of LCRC network.
12.Verification of Kirchoff’s law.
13.To study the Lissajou’s figure.
14.Measurement ofemf with thermocouple.
15.To plot the characteristic curve of a diode.
16.Clipping and Clamping circuits.
17.Capacitor filter for full wave rectifier.
18.Half wave and full wave rectifier.
19.Voltage boubler, Zener stabilizer bipolar power supply.
23.Introduction of an operational amplifier as a voltage follower.
24.Op-AMP as non inverting and inverting amplifier.
25.Simple integration differentiation with Op-AMP 741.
27.Designing and fabrication of a printed circuit board.
28.Setting up of a thermostat : Constant temperature bath.