Bronsted-Lowery theory of Acids and Bases and Lewis Concepts of acid and base. Classification of acids and bases as hard and soft. Pearson’s HSAB concept, acid base strength and hardness. Softness, symbiosis theoretical basis of hardness and softness, electro-negativity and hardness and softness
2. Bio-inorganic Chemistry :
Essential and trace elements in biological processes, metallo porphyrins with special reference to haemoglobin. Biological role of alkali and alkaline earth metal ions with special reference to Ca2+.
30 Hrs(2 Hrs/week)
Nomenclature, structure and bonding, physical properties, acidity of
Carboxylic acids, effects of substituents on acid strength, Preparation of carboxylic acids. Reactions of carboxylic acids.Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky reaction. Synthesis of acid chlorides, esters and amides. Reduction of carboxylic acids, Mechanism of decarboxylation.
Methods of formation and chemical reactions of unsaturated monocarboxylic acids Dicarboxylic acids: methods of formation and effect of heat and dehydrating agents.
IICarboxylic Acid Derivatives
Structure and nomenclature of acid chlorides, esters, amides (urea) and acid anhydrides. Relative stability of acyl derivatives, physical properties, interconversion of acidderivatives by nucleophilic acyl substitution.
Preparation of carboxylic acid derivatives, chemical reactions. Mechanisms of esterification and hydrolysis (acidic and basic)
IIIOrganic Compounds of Nitrogen
Preparation of nitroalkanes and nitroarenes. Chemical reactions of nitroalkanes. Mechanism of nucleophilic substitution in nitroarenes and their reductions in acidic, neutral and alkaline media. Picric acid.
Halonitroarenes: Reactivity. Structure and nomenclature of amines, physical properties. Stereochemistry of amines.Separation of mixture of primary, secondary and tertiary amines. Structural features effecting basicity of amines. Amine salts as phase-transfer catalysts. Preparation of alkyl and aryl amines (reduction of nitro compounds, nitriles), reductive amination of aldehydic and ketonic compounds. Gabriel-Phthalimide reaction, Hofmann bromamide reaction.
IVElectromagnetic Spectrum: Absorption Spectra
Ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectroscopy: Absorption laws (Beer- Lambert law), molar absorptivity, presentation and analysis of UV spectra, types of electronic transitions, effect of conjugation. Concept of chromophore and auxochrome. Bathochromic, hypsochromic, hyperchromic and hypochromic shifts. UV spectra of conjugated enes and enones.
Infrared (IR) absorption spectroscopy: Molecular vibrations, Hooke’s law, selection rules, intensity and position of IR bands, measurement of IR spectrum, fingerprint region, characteristic frequencies of various functional groups and interpretation of IR spectra of simple organic compounds.
CHE C – 413
15 Hours (1hr/week)
1.Partially miscible liquids
Phenol - Water, trimethylamine – water, nicotine – water system.Lower and upper consolute temperature. Effect of impurity on consolute temperature. Immiscible liquids , steam distillation. Nernst distribution law – thermodynamic derivation, applications .
2.Electro chemistry I
Migration of ions and Kohlrausch law. Debye – Huckel – Onsager’s equation for strong electrolytes (elementary treatment only).Transport number, definition and determination by Hittorf method and moving boundary method .Applications of conductivity measurement: determination of degree of dissociation, determination of dissociation constant of acid, solubility of a sparingly soluble salt, conductometric titrations.
Types of reversible electrodes, gas – metal ion, metal – metal ion, metal – insoluble salt – anion and redox electrode. Electrode reactions, Nernst equation, derivation of cell E.M.F and single electrode potential.
Electrolytic and Galvanic cells – reversible and irreversible cells, representation of electro chemical cells. Calculation of thermodynamic quantities of cell reaction (ΔG, ΔH & K), polarization, over potential and hydrogen overvoltage.
4.Electro chemistry and corrosion
Concentration cell with and without transport , liquid junction potential , application of concentration cells – valency of ions , solubility product and activity coefficient .
Defination of pH and pKa, determination of pH using hydrogen, quinhydrone and glass electrodes by potentiometric method.
Corrosion – types, theories and methods of combating it.
CHE C – 414
Laboratory Course in Chemistry
a.Estimation of calcium concentration in chalk as Calcium oxalate by KMnO4
b.Estimation of hardness of Water by EDTA titration
c.Complexometric titration ofZn(II), Mg(II), Fe(II) with EDTA
d.Estimation ofpercentage of available chlorine in bleaching powder
e.Estimation of K2Cr2O7 titration by Na2S2O3
Analysis of Nickel as Ni (DMG)2 and Al(III) and Mg(II)
a.Identification of Organic compounds (Phenols, Ketones, Hydrocarbons, Amines, Nitro compounds)
b.Thin Layer Chromatography :
Determination of Rf values and identification of organic compounds; separation of green leaf pigments
c.Preparation and separation of 2, 4- dinitro phenyl hydrazones of acetone, 2-butanone, hexane – 2-one and hexane – 3- one using toluene and light petroleum ether (40:60)
Separation of a mixture of dyes using cyclohexane and ethyl acetate (8.5:1.5).
Paper Chromatography: Ascending
Determination of Rf values and identification of organic compounds:
amino acidsand monosaccharides
a.Determination of Transition temperature of the given substance by thermometric / Dilatometric method. [eg SrCl2.2H2O / Na2SO4.H2O].
a.Determination of critical solution temperature of Phenol Water system.
b.Effect of Impurity on Critical Solution temperature.
c.Construction of a Phase Diagram of a Binary system (Urea – Benzoic acid) by cooling curve method.
a.To determine the solubility of organic acids (salicylic acid etc). at different temperatures andto determine DH of the dissolutionprocess.
b.To determine the heat of neutralization (strong acid – strong base). Determination of the enthalpy of ionization.
c.To determine heat of solution of NH4NO3 / CaCl2.
a.Determination of molar mass of a given polymer sample by viscosity measurement.