CHE C – 311Paper I : Inorganic Chemistry
15 Hrs (1 Hrs/week)
1. Coordination Compounds:
Werner’s coordination theory and its experimental verification, Effective atomic number concept, chelates, nomenclature of coordination compounds, isomerism in coordination compounds, valance bond theory of transition metal complexes
2. Organometallic Chemistry:
Definition, Nomenclature and classification of organo-metallic compounds, preparation, properties bonding and applications of alkyls and aryls of Li, Al and Sn metals, nature of bonding in metal carbonyls and metal ethylonic complexes. Paper-312
30 Hrs (2 Hrs/week)
Classification and nomenclature
Monohydric alcohols: nomenclature, methods of formation by reduction of aldehydes ketones, carboxylic acids and esters. Hydrogoen bonding. Acidic nature, Reactions of alcohols.
Dihydric alcohols: nomenclature, methods of formation, chemical reactions of vicinal glycols, oxidative cleavage [Pb(OAc)4 and HIO4] and Pinacol-Pinacolone rearrangement. Trihydric alcohols: nomenclature and methods of formation, chemical reactions of glycerol.
Nomenclature, structure and bonding. Preparation of phenols, physical properties and acidic character. Comparative acidic strengths of alcohols and phenols, resonance stabilization of phenoxide ion. Reactions of phenols: electrophilic aromatic substitution, acylation and carboxylation. Mechanisms of Fries rearrangement, Claisen rearrangement, Gatterman synthesis, Hauben-Hoesch reaction, Lederer-Manasse reaction and Reimer-Tiemann reaction.
IIIEthers and Epoxides
Nomenclature of ethers and methods of their formation, physical properties. Chemical reactions: cleavage and autoxidation, Ziesel’s method.Synthesis of epoxides. Acid and base-catalyzed ring opening of epoxides, orientation of epoxide ring opening, reactions of Grignard and organolithium reagents with epoxides.
IVAldehydes and ketones
Nomenclature and structure of the carbonyl group. Synthesis of aldenydes and ketones with particular reference to the synthesis of aldehydes from acid chlorides, synthesis of aldehydes and ketones using 1,3-dithianes, synthesis of ketones from nitriles and from carboxylic acids. Physical properties.
Mechanism of nucleophilic additions to carbonyl group with particular emphasis on benzoin, aldol, Perkin and knoevenagel condensations. Condensation with ammonia and its derivatives. Witting reaction. Mannich reaction.
Use of acetals as protecting group. Oxidation of aldehydes, Baeyer-Villiger oxidation of ketones, Cannizzaro reaction. MPV, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, LiAIH4 and NaBH4 reductions. Halogenation of enolizable ketones.
an introduction to α, ß unsaturated aldehydes and ketones.
CHE C – 313 Papers III: Physical Chemistry
15 Hours (1hr/week)
Heat capacity, heat capacities at constant volume and pressure and their relationship. Joule’s law and Joule – Thomson coefficient and inversion temperature. Calculation of w, q, dU & dH for the expansion of ideal gases under isothermal and adiabatic conditions for reversible process. Temperature dependence of enthalpy. Kirchhoff’s equation.
Second law of thermodynamics: need for the law , different statements of the law. Carnot cycle and its efficiency, Carnot theorem. Themodynamic scale of temperature.
Concept of entropy as a state function ,entropy as a function of V & T ,entropy as a function of P & T, entropy change in physical changes, Clausis inequality,entropy as a criteria of spontaneity and equilibrium. Entropy change in ideal gases and mixing of gases.
Third law of thermodynamics: Nernst heat theorem, statement and concept of residual entropy, evaluation of absolute entropy from heat capacity data. Gibbs and Helmholtz functions; Gibbs function (G) and Helmholtz function (A) as thermodynamics quantities, A & G as criteria for thermodynamics equilibrium and spontaneity, their advantage over entropy change. Variation of G & P, V & T.
Equilibrium constant and free energy .Thermodynamics derivation of law of mass action. Le Chatlier’s principle. Reaction isotherm, reaction isochore, Clapeyron equation and Clausius – Clapeyron equation, applications.
Statement and meaning of the terms – phase, component and degree of freedom, derivation of Gibbs phase rule, phase equilibria of one component system – water, Carbon dioxideandS systems .
Phase equilibrium of two component system - solid liquid equilibrium. simple eutectic – Pb-Ag system, desilverisation of lead.
Solid solutions – compound formation with congruent melting point (Mg-Zn) and in congruent melting point (Ferric Chloride – Water).
CHE C – 314
Laboratory Course in Chemistry
Calibration of fractional weights, pipettes and burettes.
Quantitative analysis : Volumetric analysis
a.Determination of Oxalic acid strength by titrating with NaOH
b.Estimation of Oxalic Acid by Redox KMnO4 titration
c.Determination of Acetic acid in commercial vinegar using NaOH
d.Determination of Alkali content in antacid tablet using HCl
e.Estimation of Fe2+ and Fe3+ by Redox K2Cr2O7 titration
f.Estimation of Cu2+ byNa2S2O3
Quantitative Analysis : Gravimetric analysis
Analysis of Copper as CuCNS and Zn as ZnO, NH4PO4.
a.Element detection by (Green Chemical Analysis) and conventional methods
b.Identification of Organic Compounds ( Carboxylic acids, carbohydrates, amides, halogen compounds and sulphur containing compounds
c.Synthesis of following by (Green Chemical Analysis) and conventional methods
Acetylation of primary amines, Base catalysed aldol condensation, halogen addition to C=C (carbon - carbon), [4+2] cycloaddition reaction.
a.Determination of Transition temperature of the given substance by thermometric / Dialometric method. [e.g. MnCl2.4H2O / CuSO4.5H2O].
a.To construct the phase diagram of two component (Diphenyl amine – Benzophenone) systemby cooling curve method.
a.To determine the solubility of organic acids (benzoic acid etc). at different temperatures andto determine DH of the dissolutionprocess.
b.To determine the heat of neutralization (weak acid – weak base). Determine the enthalpy of ionization.
c.Basicity of an acid by thermo chemical methods. To determine the heat of solution of KNO3 by solubility method.
d.To determine heat of solution of KNO3 by calorimetric method.
e.Determination of enthalpy of ionization of acetic acid vs strong base.
a.Kinetics of enzymatic reaction (starch – amylase system)